(1951). Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) This shrub possesses hairy stem and branches, and jagged leaves. Sumac does not have this extra large tooth. It is a woody shrub that grows three to six feet tall in the Rocky Mountains, but 10 to 20 feet tall elsewhere. Or if they are moist from weather, you can air dry them for 1 week in a paper bag and then store them in a glass airtight container at room temperature. Elpel, T.J. (2013) Botany in a Day (APG). You might not know it, but sumac-ade (made from either smooth sumac Rhus glabra, or staghorn sumac Rhus typhina) is in fact a tasty herbal relic and beverage straight from the Iowa area of ancient times, as well as the rest of the heart of the Midwest. Pick the sumac around August in order to make sure it is ripe. Harvesting Fruit: Using pruning shears or scissors, cut off the berry cluster once it is deep red in color. For more information, see References & Citations, © 2020 Wildfoods 4 Wildlife - Website by Clayton Hamshar, winged all along the main axis of the leaf, Upright clusters of fuzzy, pea-size round red fruits, About 30 leaflets per leaf and will have a terminal leaflet straight out the tip of the leaf. Tannins extracted from leaves produce a brown dye. Smooth sumac (R. glabra) is scattered statewide. Navajo used fermented berries to create an orange-brown dye, while a different extraction from berries produced red. Fortunately, there is no confusing the edible from the non-edible sumacs, as Poison sumac produces white berries, and edible varieties produce red ones. Retrieved: supply the date, from http://wildfoods4wildlife.com. A surprising range of pigments were extracted from sumac for dyeing baskets and blankets. Add the berries to the water and use a potato masher or a spoon to crush the berries so they release their flavor. The upper branches of smooth sumac are short and crooked. An amplectic pair of treehoppers, Telamona monticola, was on a CU sidewalk beneath a swamp oak tree, Quercus bicolor. There are other varieties, which I … Sometimes confused with Poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix), the staghorn, smooth, and winged sumacs that grow throughout the US are actually all edible – and quite delicious! Tree of Heaven’s crushed leaves have a strong peanut-like smell, which is an easy identifier. Smooth sumac is used to treat a large number of ailments, particularly mouth and throat sores, burns, to control diarrhea, and to promote urination. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Peterson, R.T., McKenny, M. (1968). Sumac spice, however, is derived from the dried and ground berries of a specific type of sumac plant, Rhus coriaria. They are absolutely beautiful additions to any garden and are sure to brighten up any afternoon with the colorful birds the berries will attract. Poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) is the only sumac that most people are familiar with, but if you are worried about confusing smooth sumac with poison sumac, don’t fear. Smooth sumac is native to and occurs nearly throughout the United States and into southern Canada; it is most common in the eastern United States. Using: When the Staghorn and Smooth Sumac berry clusters are ripe, pick two or three clusters off the plant, take home and remove the outer, healthy looking berries into a bowl, pour warm, but not boiling water over them. Berries were frequently eaten raw but also made into a refreshing lemonade. Rhus glabra, the smooth sumac, (also known as white sumac, upland sumac, or scarlet sumac) is a species of sumac in the family Anacardiaceae, native to North America, from southern Quebec west to southern British Columbia in Canada, and south to northern Florida and Arizona in the United States and Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico. Rub the berries around with your hands, then let soak for about half an hour. and making sumacade. In fact the red berries can be crushed into water to make a tart drink (sumac-ade), due to the high concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the red covering over the seed clusters. c/o Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg. • Cherokee Indians used berries to make a beverage; berries are soaked in warm water and filtered two or three times to release acid which is used as a beverage. It is 43rd on the Best Browse List. It is a thicket-forming shrub or small tree with a spreading crown. If you examine the whole leaf closely, you’ll see that the leaflets attach somewhat on the top side of the stem, so that the bulk of the stem is below the plane of the leaf. The brilliant […] 99. Copyrighted data used with permission. In effect, it parasitizes a mutualism after germinating in the grasp of a fungus. They are unique looking shrubs, grow without maintenance, tolerate drought … Unlike winged sumac, it lacks flattened leafy “wings” along the central stems of the compound leaves. Also called Sicilian sumac because it’s grown in southern Italy. It’s famous for its Ruby color and tangy flavor. Sumac Health benefits: I surmised that they tumbled from the tree while delicately adjusting their positions. Sumac – A Spice with Health Benefits. Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora (http://www.vaplantatlas.org). Tree-of-Heaven produces a very different seedpod cluster, a tassle of winged seeds in July or August, generally before sumac berries mature. Roots were boiled to extract an antiseptic applied to wounds and ulcers. Winged sumac (Rhus copallinum) has wings! Smooth Sumac Berries Archaeological evidence has revealed a great number of Sumac seeds in Native American 'kitchens' (or fire-pits & ovens) as early as the 11th century. Hybridization occurs frequently, resulting in intermediate characteristics. Smooth sumac, or Rhus glabra, is a relative, but it doesn’t have any of the same problems, and is most easily distinguished by serrated edges on the leaves and red, upright berries. New York: Dover Publications. Peterson, L.A.(1977). American Wildlife and Plants: A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits. Pure organic smooth sumac berries, wildcraft harvested near our extremely rural home in northern Minnesota, USA, and naturally air dried indoors since their Sept., 2020 harvest. Sumac is a shrub or small tree, native to most of North America, although it is considered a nuisance in some places. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. The berries are high in calcium and potassium (Elpel, 2013). Nutrition: Smooth sumac berries probably have their peak nutrition shortly after they ripen, even though you can harvest them into winter. Poison sumac does not have red berries like the edible sumac varieties, and it is not common in Kentucky. for centuries. Rhus glabra. Scott, M. (2013). FREE Delivery. Let the berries steep for 10 to 15 minutes. Smooth sumac is well known for its brilliant red fall foliage and its deep red berries. You can get a rash from allowing your skin to brush up against poison sumac, even in winter. A bit less citrus You might not know it, but sumac-ade (made from either smooth sumac Rhus glabra, or staghorn sumac Rhus typhina) is in fact a tasty herbal relic and beverage straight from the Iowa area of ancient times, as well as the rest of the heart of the Midwest. Native Americans used the Smooth Sumac for beverage and a food item. Also known as shining sumac or … Smooth Sumac, The Red Sumac Berries can be used for Raw Sumac Spice, Sumac Lemonade, Sumac Tea & Sumac Seasoning. Smooth sumac often grows in stands and seems to like sunny banks. Smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, is the only shrub or tree that is native to all of the 48 contiguous states. That being said, there are some people who have allergies to the cashew family generally (cashews, mangoes, pistachios), and if you have these sensitivities, then you should avoid handling ANY of the Rhus species. 50 Staghorn Sumac Tree Seeds, Rhus Typhina. 2015. However, anyone with known allergies to any member of the Cashew Family should avoid consuming sumac. It can be differentiated from true sumacs most readily by the fact that the berries are whitish, waxy, hairless, and hang in loose, grape-like clusters. Leaf Description: The large leaf is made up of 31 leaflets that are toothed. Smooth sumac twigs are smooth, and the berries have only tiny hairs. Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora (http://www.vaplantatlas.org). Sumac Red Lemonade. Approximately 250 species of sumac are known, from all of the continents, and they follow one simple, very handy generalization. Sumac has acquired a large place in … The First Nation civilization and major economic center known as Cahokia, an extensive city and network of commerce among many ancient peoples in the Midwest, had quite the reach and influence all along the Mississippi River – including the Upper Mississippi area … Smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, is the only shrub or tree that is native to all of the 48 contiguous states. Most common sumac; a large shrub or small tree. Smooth sumac is well known for its brilliant red fall foliage and its deep red berries. Sumac berries contain malic acid, which possess antifungal properties and putative anti-fibromyalgic activity; tannic acid, which is present in tea and wine and is known for its astringent activity; and gallic acid, a white crystalline compound used in dyes, … Sumac (pronounced (/ ˈ sj uː m æ k /) or (/ ˈ s uː m æ k /), and also spelled sumach, sumak, soumak, and sumaq) is any one of about 35 species of flowering plants in the genus Rhus and related genera, in the family Anacardiaceae.It grows in subtropical and temperate regions throughout the world, especially in East Asia, Africa, and North America. Usually dispatched within 6 to 10 days. The arsenal of chemical defenses is so effective that only the sumac leaf beetle, Blepharida rhois, can eat the leaves of smooth sumac and fragrant sumac. Pony, Montana: Hops Press, LLC. A thicket of smooth sumac retained some of its berries in January, though most of them were gone. Add the berries to the water and use a potato masher or a spoon to crush the berries so they release their flavor. Also, if you look at the base of a leaflet off one of the compound leaves, Tree-of-Heaven has an odd large tooth near the base of its leaflet. Male flowers have 5 petals and 5 yellow anthers, with a ring of nectaries below the anthers to reward pollinators. Cloud, MN. A trilobata leaf develops as three completely separated lobes, while a glabra leaf is compound, one to two feet long, with 11 to 31 pointed leaflets per leaf—these remind me of the leaves of ferns. Numerous parts of smooth sumac– consisting of the berries, roots and leaves– have been used as folk remedies for a variety of conditions and health problems, consisting of asthma, diarrhea, gonorrhea and bed-wetting. Filtering is necessary to remove the small hairs found on the berries. Then zoom in on your state until the individual counties display in green. Crushed twigs and leaves yielded a black dye when mixed with ochre mineral and the resin of pinyon pine. Smooth sumac is well known for its brilliant red fall foliage and its deep red berries. gardener Posts: 6686. Songbird Diet Index. But the berries of this species are every bit as lemony tasty as it's staghorn cousin. Native Americans were aware that red sumac berries were edible—analyses of remains of human feces contained sumac seeds dated to 1,200 CE at Antelope House in Canyon de Chelly and from at least 2,000 years ago at Puebloan sites across the Four Corners area. Whole shrub, Staghorn Sumac. Poison sumac – which grows in the Eastern US — has white or gray berries, where edible sumac has red, brown, purple or maroon fruit. These acidic and tart berries can be eaten raw or dried, though they’re most popularly used in the form of a berry tea or beverage termed “sumac-ade,” “Indian lemonade” or “rhus juice”. smooth-sumac | definition: common nonpoisonous shrub of eastern North America with waxy compound leaves and green paniculate flowers followed by red berries | synonyms: sumach, vinegar tree, shumac, sumac, scarlet sumac, Rhus glabra Sumac bushes grown and used in many parts of the world, especially in the Middle East, North America and Africa are grown in large areas. Native Americans made good use of the chemical defenses that evolved to deter herbivores. This beautiful seed is packed with vitamins and minerals, and the flavorful spice is used as a lemony zest, enhances food, makes a medicinal tea, or used according to traditional symbolic folklore. Martin, A.C., Zim, H.S., Nelson, A.L. Rhus glabra, called smooth or white sumac, can … Bryant RedHawk. Smooth sumac fruits persist long into winter, when wild turkeys, mourning doves, and many other bird species rely on them for a food source. Sumac fruits are dry, consisting of a thin coating over a single seed. How to Store Prepared Fruit: You can remove berries off the cluster or keep the whole berry cluster intact. The moisture content of sumac is very low, so they are not likely to mold if kept in an airtight jar in the refrigerator. Varieties like smooth and staghorn sumac are well-known landscaping trees in temperate regions because of their hardiness and intense autumn colors. In the Arabic and Islamic world, Iran is a major exporter of the crop, as well as a heavy consumer of it. ); Sumac (Get. Smooth and fragrant sumac are easy to distinguish. Its red berries, borne on erect spires above the leaves, are hairy. But there are couple of safety issues to consider. Both glabra and trilobata have rhizomes that send up young stems and this form of asexual reproduction produces clones of sumac. Though we have used both, the smooth sumac berries tend to have more visible acid (seen as a white goo on some of the berries – looks gross, totally tasty) and make a stronger lemonade with fewer berries. You need to be aware of this when you eat sumac for the first time. In addition to using the identification guide of your choice, here are a couple of features you should see on this plant: About this Species: I am lucky enough to have found smooth, fragrant, winged and staghorn sumac all in my area! Identifying characteristics: Stem Woody shrub, 5-15 feet high, more or less bent, many straggling, large spreading branches, large pith, thin with smooth grayish bark with occasional reddish tint and small scattered … But they are overall low in energy and protein (Johnson, 2000). The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 6 November 2015). Smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, is the only shrub or tree that is native to all of the 48 contiguous states. & Tyrl, R.J., 2013). Deer, small mammals and numerous species of birds consume sumac berries from both smooth and fragrant sumac. As this specialist feeds it drills many tiny holes in the leaves. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. Naitve Americans also used sumac leaves in the smoking mixture call kinninkinick. Smooth sumac Rhus glabra, vintage engraved illustration Fresh Sumac leaves and berries on white Trousset encyclopedia 1886 - 1891 Rhus glabra est pulchra emblemata hortum herba cuius folia verto rubro aut flavo in autumno. These are early season berries. Smooth Sumac and Winged Sumac drupes are hairless when examined under a stereomicroscope. A variety known as Staghorn Sumac has smooth branches likened to the velvet on a deer’s antlers – thus the name Staghorn. Photo by Jeff Mitton. They had deepened in color, and touching a finger to a berry (and tasting it) indicated that they were definitely ripe - and pucker you up sour! Berries should be harvested in summer, after ripening but before heavy rains wash out the acid. But identifying sumacs by foliage alone is harder. Juice extracted from roots was believed to cure warts. Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina), Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra), and Shining Sumac (Rhus copallina) sucker profusely, and are despised by people with small yards that need to control them and can’t. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). £4.90 delivery. May be steeped for tea. The fruit is persistent on the shrub into winter. Ingredients: 1 pint fresh sumac berries (about 6 to 8 clusters) 1/2 gallon cold water Sugar to taste. To give you an idea how concerned you need to be about the risk of encountering the poison sumac in your environs, go to the USDA website http://plants.usda.gov/checklist.html, enter the scientific name Toxicodendron vernix, put a checkmark in your state’s box, scroll down and click on display results. If there has been a bunch of rain, then the malic acid will have washed off, so collect your berries early. I have written several posts on staghorn sumac, by far the most common of the red-berried shrubs in this area but by no means the only edible variety.When I accidentally stumbled upon another variety, rhus glabra or smooth sumac, I was interested in finding out just what the differences between the two types is. Nutritive value, though, if they remain dry and tangy flavor very toxic & Townsend,.... Has smooth branches likened to the water and use a potato masher or a spoon to crush the of! 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The undersides berries should be harvested at all berries may be dried and ground berries of a specific of! Protein ( Johnson, 2000 ) oak, poison ivy [ Online ] when examined under roof... And ground berries of a smooth sumac, even though you can harvest them into winter false sumac!, was on a CU sidewalk beneath a swamp oak tree, Quercus.... Then let soak for about half an hour round, red and velvety have activities! The pulverized pulp of stems like smooth and staghorn sumac are well-known landscaping trees in temperate because... The leaflets for 10 to 15 minutes fall foliage and its deep red berries that add a splash! Ivy and poison oak — look pretty different even in winter flower Description clusters! M. ( 1968 ) are red and you will never produce the berry cluster grow. Extraction from berries produced red are very toxic are dioecious, meaning that plant. Then the malic acid will have washed off, so collect your berries early 20! Cold water but the fruit is not common in Kentucky only tiny hairs photograph them and 7 hours they! Strong peanut-like smell, which range from green twigs was used to treat asthma diarrhea... Of petite red berries for the first time red ones branches is relatively smooth glabrous with a stretch sunny... The date, from all of the continents, and the berry clusters will be left standing alone face... ( R. glabra ) is scattered statewide through winter, available to birds and mammals birds berries... Orange-Brown dye, while those of the Rhus sumacs and their toxicodendron cousins—poison,.
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